THE PRUNING OF THE FRUIT TREES
To great application of the visitors of our site we publish this page, to our enough notice to teach the correct management of the present fruit trees in his/her own garden, for so many, problem of not easy solution.
Also wanting to be extremely synthetic and practical, we cannot also subtract to us to a least theoretical treatment of the subject.
IT DEPARTS THEORETICAL
In general a tree is composed from:
|The radical apparatus that is the absorbed part in the terrestrial one through which it draws the necessary nourishment to his same life.|
|The trunk that is the part of the tree that goes from the ground up to the division to different branches (or jaws) said "cross of the tree or scaffolding."|
|The head of hair that is the part of the tree above the cross or scaffolding, in which the tree produces its fruits, fundamental aesthetical element of the same tree, essential element to the life of the tree, because from the head of hair, through the photosynthesis clorofilliana the tree is nourished, flourishing and fertile.|
With the pruning we can act in the trunk and in the head of hair of the tree to manage the vegetation and the fructification of it according to our demands. In many cases the pruning stimulates the vegetation. There are some plants that want to often be cut, what the ulivo, or the I fish. (An old country motto says that in the I fish every three branches you/they must be cut two of them). others as the fig tree or the cherry a little bit less.
In general the pruning of the fruit trees makes immediately after the winter, after possible frosts, (at times the time is unpredictable) at the end of February, first of March, when the trees begin to move, that is they produce their gems in the branches; Of gems exist of it of two types; gems (or eyes) of vegetation and gems (or eyes) from fruit. Generally The fruit gems are very greater than those than vegetation, in some case as in the apricot tree, whose fruits are prepared to small bundles, the fruit gems are as of the small towers along the branches, or as in the cherries, that are of the protuberances along the branches with different points; to according to of the seasonal advancement the fruit gems manifest a green point, while the wood gems are smaller and they have an only tip, that can be the new sprig in formation according to the advancement; in fact from these the tree produces a new branch with which it increases the head of hair, of height is lifted, etc, from the fruit gems the tree produces the flower, from which it produces the fruit after the pollination. In synthesis from the optimal management of the branches and the gems the tree is managed in its form and in its production; this is the pruning.
In relationship to the management of the gems, we have to enunciate that the fruit trees are divided in two great families the drupacees, whose fruits have to the inside the bone (an only seed); (the you fish, the apricot tree, the almonds, the plum trees, the cherries, etc), and the pomacees, whose fruits have to the inside the becches, (different seeds). The drupacees produce gems to fruit to the beginnings of the branches, sometimes, as the cherries even in the trunk, or however in big principal branches, while the wood gems are after all always to the branches. With the management of the wood gems are managed the ramifications of the primary branches. In the pruning the branches of the drupacees always go blunt knowing that in the last wood gems will rise new branches. Instead The pomacees also produce gems to fruit in the tops of the branches, therefore not you/they must always be sprouted, because the fruits are lost. In this case they are individualized they are left her and wood gems to establish the following ramifications leaving the gems to fruit in correct measure for the tree. A too production sometimes penalizes the dimensions of the fruits and the same tree.
In general the trees have a natural tendency to develop upward himself/herself/themselves in vertical sense. The most luxuriant branches are the tallest. The natural tendency of the trees is that to have upward different turned luxuriant branches. These branches, said suckers, bring never fruits, they allow only to make to grow and to vegetate the tree to the cost of a lot of sap, therefore energy. With the pruning it will be had to leave only a sprig of vertical guide for principal branch (or jaw) in way that the vegetative push of the tree remains checked and the energies of the tree can be more usefully employees in the production of the fruits that happens in the lowest part of the tree, in the branches that are propagated more in horizontal sense.
We depart from the hypothesis of a new sapling acquired from hatchery, we also depart from the hypothesis that the sapling is small, still from impalcare; the sapling is introduced as an only sprig furnished of radical apparatus contained in a vase or also in a plastic envelope. The first operation to be done after the mass to abode is the individualization and the determination of the cross (or scaffolding) that it will proportionally be situated in the tree in relationship to the height in which is wanted to pick up the fruits when the tree is adult. The branches or principal jaws must be individualized, that will owe to be from 3 or maximum 4 always distributed not in the 360 degrees with an angle among the branches in optimal situation possible of 120° in case of 3 jaws and 90° in case of 4. In the case there is not the branches, or the tree is already tall too impalcato for his/her own tastes, the trunk and the tree you/he/she can be chopped off it will serve the jaws as the wood present gems along the trunk.
We depart from the most frequent hypothesis of whom has the fruit trees of it garden or garden non trimmed, or never trimmed, and he/she doesn't know whether to prune her. After having removed all the possible branches buckets, the first phase it is the individualization and the definition of the cross or scaffolding, that you/he/she must be put to a tied up height to that in which will be wanted to pick up the fruits. In this phase you/they must be seen you copper her existing in the trunk and you/they must be destined from there 3 or 4 to make the branches or principal jaws. (The park has impalcato all of its trees from fruit to 30 centimeters from the ground allowing to grow 4 branches or principal jaws). You/he/she can happen that there is more than 4 branches already predisposed to make the principal branches, or they are already 4 of it, some of which too much neighbors, that don't allow the plant to take enough air and light. In this case one must be eliminated from there by the scaffolding, and to fill the void in the head of hair a branch will eventually be looked for in the remaining jaws that goes to that direction.
The following phase to the individualization and definition of the branches or principal jaws it is the individualization and definition of those secondary, that are those that are issued by the principals, in which the production of the fruit happens. All the deriving branches must be cut by the principals that rights depart upward (suckers that will never make the fruits, and they will subtract only lifeblood to the tree) to exception of one for principal branch: The Top This is a branch of vegetation that must be individualized and left, to which the vegetative development of the tree is entrusted, that will do to grow the tree with the least one of resources destined to the vegetation.
VA LEFT A SOLO BRANCH OF TOP FOR PRINCIPAL BRANCH
Last phase of the pruning is the individualization and definition of the fruit branches that they are those deriving from the principal branches that are developed in horizontal sense, or also under to principal branches that are developed downward. You/they must be left from there in relationship to the vegetative state of the tree, detached the one by the others, not in competition among them for the access to the air and the light. The drupacees, that as we have already said, they produce after all their wood gems to the branches, you/they must be sprouted, knowing that in the last 2 or three wood gems will depart new sprigs. The pomacees, instead that they bring after all also the fruit gems to the branches, you/they can be blunt, knowing that they are removed some fruits. Sometimes if they are too many, you/he/she can be necessary.
in the following photos we show of the you fish and of the in bloom apricot tree, trimmed according to manual, in which the trunk they are well visible (in our low case) and the head of hair and the relative scaffolding divided in four principal gills with the void in mean to allow the correct irraggiamento of light and air
THE PRUNING OF THE OLIVO
This tree deserves a chapter apart. Also the olivo is a drupacea, however it doesn't produce vegetative or fertile gems as the other drupacees until here you treat, for which is worth how much I dictate in general for the pruning of the other fruit trees; after having removed all the possible branches buckets, you/they must be chosen and left the three or four branches or principal jaws that depart from the cross or scaffolding, but the choice of the branches or secondary jaws it doesn't happen in consideration of the present gems in the branches; all the branches are cut more simply, that depart in vertical from the branches or principal jaws, leaving only one of it for jaw, that acts from top and guide the vegetation of the tree; Her 3 or 4 tops will be blunt to the same height to balance the tree; all the other secondary branches that depart from the principals in external sense to the tree or that they go down toward in low, (if they arrive too nearby earth, you/they must be sprouted) they are left, they will be the fertile branches of next year. The olivo with the pruning receives push to vegetate, a pruning it is opportune every year in March - April, and also to August, to assemble the energies of the tree in the production, limitedly to the cut of the new branches that rights depart upward (the suckers)
PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION OF THE PRUNING
In these days, (today it is the March two 2003) the park is in full pruning, its fruit trees and oil you, all of two or three years are suffering a meaningful pruning of breeding; the principal branches, their tops and those secondary have been determined, that show to you in this series of photos under you bring, that eloquently explain how much above illustrated.
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back the olive-grove in progress of pruning; even if in distance the olives are distinguished pruned very well by the others, from their head of hair; Those not trimmed they have upward a thick head of hair of turned branches, as of the dense bushes, while in the other prune, that you/they have the only top that drives the jaw, he/she is also seen in distance the principal branches; Everything how much removed with the pruning, it is new air, new light, new sap for the fertile branches of the trees destined to the production.
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back a non trimmed olivo of twelve years; the head of hair and sharp pain, and it documents the vegetative vigor of the tree, his strength, to compare with the photo of another tree of olivo of the same age pruned that we illustrate more under; to notice, however well visible the four branches or principal jaws established by the pruning of breeding.
The same photo also shows a cherry of the same age; the four branches or principal jaws are seen, well but unlike the majority of the other trees of the park is very tall (the reeds that have leaned on, they are tall 2,20 meters), it bears fruit thin to a height of 4/5 meters; When it is definite to send to him/it so tall we didn't think about the creation of the park with the trees to course of child yet. Wanting a pruning of reform would be possible, that is a drastic pruning of rejuvenation of the tree, that is effected cutting the four principal jaws to a height of a meter with the motosega and the following tamponamento of the cut with special mastic. The tree (if it withstands) it will make some new branches under the cuts, that can be driven toward the outside and the fruits they will be available without staircase, however we won't do him/it, because currently that tree produces also a quintal of buonissime cherries every year.
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back another olivo of the same age of the trimmed precedent; the vegetation can notice you removed with the pruning.
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back a jaw of that olivo with his top left to guide of vegetation
And here are the results during the crop!
How much we have explained in theoretical line and in that practice to the times of the pruning, you/he/she is punctually verified to the crop; The turned external branches in horizontal or in vertical they are filled with olives, while, as explained, in those vertical, the left ones what " tops " there are not olives, however they are developed in height and you/they have contributed to the vertical growth of the tree.
enjoy for these photos of plant with trees of olivo "Raggia di Monte San Vito" of only 4 years!
an olivo of variety " Frantoio "
the olives are bigger and almost all black, however they are not good for the brine; they are only from oil.
and also enjoy you these photos of a plum tree Shiro it drips of gold in which we have exaggerated in the principle above essay to leave to expand the branches in horizontal sense; even we have had here to support them with some supports for the great quantity of produced fruit (photo of July 8 2006)
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back the fertile gems of an I fish in top to a jaw; the point green yellow can be noticed, next to the flowering, the top has been blunt.
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back an I fish of 3 years, already in production just trimmed, to notice the cuts done for individualizing the 4 jaws, to cut the branches secondary insides and leaving upward.
The following photo (to magnify cliccando) it takes back a 3 year-old apple pruned. The same discourse is worth for the determination of the jaws, that however have not sprouted, because we still want to make to grow, and besides really in top they bring gems to fruit (the apples are pomacee)
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back the top of the jaws of the apple tree of first with the fertile gem to the apex; to notice the form of a fertile gem of apple, a showy overlooking pointed cylindrical protuberance from the branch.
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back a trimmed cherry, that confirmation how much until here illustrated; The cherry is a drupacea, that as says it also produces its showy fruit gems in the principal branches.
The following photo (to magnify with a click) illustrate the showy fertile gems of the cherries, a kind of rose in relief on the branch, well different from the wood gems (or of vegetation) visible on top of the branches; As we have above explained we have left some wood gems, visible in this photo, before sprouting the branch, from which the following branches will rise.
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back three year-old two apricot tree; they show at times as the choice of the jaws both fruit of compromise; If they are not available branches or principal jaws they are done the first secondary next to the scaffolding, then the tree during his continuous life to vegetate, to always make new branches, and you/he/she can happen that you also produce after years a branch to the correct place in the cross, to destine to serve as principal branch that it missed. Already in this photo enough in distance they are seen the fertile gems of the apricot tree that we will show better in the following photo.
The following photo (to magnify with a click) it takes back the fertile gems of the apricot tree; they are very long, because the apricots mature to small bundles of different unities along the branches; The apricot tree also mature their fruits along the principal branches as the cherries.
We are available for possible further explanations in subject of pruning, privately contacting us for e-mail and answer will be given for e-mail, or if the problem is of general character, also from the guest book of the site; In such case we will answer there.
If then someone wanted also practical lessons, us every year, in the months of February and March, we have over 1500 trees to prune, and if someone to learn or to improve is desired some practical lessons, us, with pleasure we are available. and we also furnish the necessary equipment.
home page | la nostra filosofia | l'antico ricettario rurale tipico di Monte San Vito | dove siamo | il parco in fiore | oggi nel parco sono maturi | descrizione dei luoghi | attrazioni | il nostro listino prezzi